The RCA originated in 1996 from a Latin American Alliance Network unitingorganisations supported by the Rainforest Foundation Norwegian (RFN). This international cooperation agency stimulated the joint actionof the organisations supported by itself in diverse Latin American countries with the idea of exchanging experiences with each other and disseminating their work. In 1997, a Brazilian section of this network was created, which in 2000 became independent, giving rise toa national articulation of the RFN’s Brazilian partners around indigenous issues. This articulation was formalized as the RCA (Rede de Cooperação Alternativa: Alternative Cooperation Network), which in 2013 changed its name to the Amazonian Cooperation Network (maintaining its acronym: RCA).
The RCA’s mission is to promote cooperation and the exchange of knowledge, experiences and capacities among its member indigenous and indigenist organisations, seeking to strengthen autonomy and increase thesustainability and welfare of indigenous peoples in Brazil.
The RCA’s mainaim is to promote the coordinationand political proactivism of these organisations onstrategic themes related tosustainability and local governance in indigenous lands; public recognition of the fundamental role that indigenous peoples perform in forest conservation; strengthening of indigenous and indigenist organisations in defence of indigenous interests and rights in Amazonia; and improvement of indigenist and environmentalist public policies.
Today the RCA is made up of 13 organisations, 9 of them indigenous (AMAAIAC, Apina, ATIX, CIR, FOIRN, Hutukara, OGM, OPIAC and Wyty-Catë) and 4 indigenist (CPI-AC, CTI, Iepé and ISA), representatives of more than 86 indigenous peoples living in the Amazonia biome and surrounding areas, especially in the corridors formed by the indigenous lands in the following regions: Acre-Javari/AM; Rio Negro-Roraima; Xingu Basin/MT; Amapá-north Pará and Timbira Complex/MA-TO. As a coordinated network, the RCA develops activities that directly and indirectly reach more than 136,000 indigenous people of both genders and all age groups, living in 93 indigenous lands of the Amazonian region and covered by the work of its 13 indigenous and indigenist member organisations, inhabitants of territories that in total are home to 47 million hectares of forest.
As well as the fact that most of the member organisations are partners of the Rainforest Foundation Norway (RFN), all the organisations belonging to the RCA work in Brazilian Amazonia, possessstrong political, thematic and methodological affinities in terms of their projects with the different indigenous peoples, and over recent yearshave been seeking to influence public policies targeted at indigenous populations. The network’s field of action was delimited by the member organisations throughthe realization of collective activities such as intercultural exchanges, thematic seminars, regional encounters, training of staff teams and capacity building, producing and disseminating publications, monitoring indigenous and environmentalist public policies, and political pressure work.
Field ofwork of the RCA’s member organisations:
The Association of the Movement of Indigenous Agroforestry Agents of Acre State was founded in 2002 and has the primary mission of preserving, conserving and protecting the forests of Acre state through constant monitoring and territorial and environmental management of Indigenous Lands.
Lines of action: Its specific area of activity is the management and enrichment of existing agroforestry systems, turtle breeding, beekeeping, fish farming and livestock breeding, the revitalization and conservation of pre-Colombian seeds, regional sourcing of school meals, analysis of the waste problem in indigenous communities, as well as exploring strategies to solve the issue of improper appropriation of natural resources within ILs.
Contact:[email protected] – telefone: (05568) 3223- 3177
CENTRO DE FORMAÇÃO DOS POVOS DA FLORESTA – Estrada Transacreana KM 7 – CEP: 69900-000
Rio Branco – Acre – Brasil
Apina (Wajãpi Villages Council) was founded in 1994,bringing togetherall the Wajãpi heads of extensive families, who chose its directorate. Its main objectives are to guarantee a more direct representation of the community vis-à-vis stateauthorities and to search for solutions capable ofreorientingthe relationship with the agencies working in the area – Terra Indígena Wajãpi/AP.
Lines of action: We can highlightthe actions, in partnership with Iepé, towards the demarcation and permanent territorial monitoring of the TI Wajãpi, training of indigenous teachers, researchers and health agents, political strengthening and management of associations, as well as initiatives to discuss environmental and territorial management, a decisive factor for maintaining their quality of life and for environmental conservation of their territory.
Contact:[email protected] – Phone: (05596) 3224-2113
Centro de Formação e Documentação Wajãpi – CFDW Posto Aramirã – Terra Indígena Wajãpi
Pedra Branca do Amapari e Laranjal do Jari/AP
The Associação Terra Indígena Xingu (Xingu Indigenous Land Association) was founded in 1995 to defend the interests and cultures of the local indigenous communities and to monitor the borders of the Xingu Indigenous Park (1961, MT). The park is home to around 7,000 inhabitants from 16 distinct peoples (Aweti, Txikão/Ikpeng, Kaiabi, Kalapalo, Kamaiurá, Kisedje, Kuikuro, Matipu, Mehinako, Nahukuá, Naruvotu, Wauja, Tapayuna, Trumai, Yudja and Yawalapiti), who share 2,800,000 hectares of demarcated land.Fourteen of these peoplesare members of ATIX, which includes members of different ethnic groups in its staff and has operated as an important means of dialogue with national society and has promotededucation projects, as well as economic alternatives and territorial protection.
Lines of action: Its main areas of work includecultural revival projects, territorial protection and monitoring, as well education, health and economic alternative programs. ATIX receives institutional support from the Rainforest Foundation Norway and assistance from ISA.
The Comissão Pró-Índio do Acre (Acre Pro-Indian Commission) was created in February 1979 to support the indigenous peoples of Acre (Huni Kuĩ/Kaxinawa, Shawãdawa, Ashaninka, Yawanawa, Manxineru, Noke Koe/Katukina, Puyanawa and Nukini) in some of their campaigns to acquire and exercisecollective rights – territorial, linguistic, sociocultural – through actions that connect theterritorial and environmental management of indigenous lands, intercultural and bilingual education and public policies.
Lines of action: Indigenous Education and Research Program, Territorial and Environmental Management Program, Public Policy and Regional CoordinationProgram, Geoprocessing Sector, Administrative and Financial Sector.
Contact: [email protected] Phone: (05568) 9975-2325 / 9984-5661
CENTRO DE FORMAÇÃO DOS POVOS DA FLORESTA
Adress: Estrada Transacreana KM 7 – CEP: 69.900-000 – Caixa Postal n. 61 – Caixa Postal 61 – Correios Agência Centro – Rio Branco/AC – Brasil
The Conselho Indígena de Roraima (Roraima Indigenous Council) is a non-profitmaking indigenous organisation working at local, regional, national and international levels.TodayCIR is the main interlocutor for the indigenous communitiesin the state of Roraima withthe relevant authorities and entitiesin the quest toguarantee the rights of these peoples (Macuxi, Wapichana, Sapara, Waiwai, Yanomami, Ingarico, Taurepang, Patamona e Maiogong and Yekuana). The campaign for recognition of the Raposa Serra do So Indigenous Land wasthe main agent for the creation and strengthening of the CIR and lastedfor more than 34 years. Even after the homologation of the land in April 2005, the suffering of the indigenous peoples continued with houses and bridges being burnt down, schools destroyed, environmental devastation and an atmosphere of insecurity provoked by the presence of the invaders. CIR is formed by eight regional councils thatcombined representaround 220 indigenous communities distributed across 46% of the land surface of Roraima.
Lines of action:Among the main objectives are defence of the rights and interests of indigenous peoples, strengthening autonomy and the judicial and extrajudicial support for indigenous interests, stimulating support for the cultural, economic and social autonomy of indigenous peoples, development of activities in the areas of health, education, culture, environment, economic development and social welfare of indigenous peoples, support for demarcation processes, legalizationand the safeguarding of indigenous territories.
Contact: [email protected] – Phone: (05595) 3224-5761
Conselho Indígena de Roraima – Av. Sebastião Diniz, 2630, Bairro São Vicente, CEP: 69.303 – 475 Boa Vista/RR
The Centro de Trabalho Indigenista (Indigenist Work Centre) is a non-profitmaking association, founded in March 1979 by anthropologists and indigenists. Its identity is defined bydirect action in Indigenous Lands through projects elaborated on the basis of local demands, aiming to help indigenous peoples to gain effective control of their territories, explaining the role of the state in protecting and guaranteeing their constitutional rights. It is active in Indigenous Lands located in the Amazon, Cerrado and Atlantic Rainforest biomes.
Lines of action: Territorial control and environmental management (land monitoring and legalization, territorial protection, support for traditional activities, economic alternatives and sustainable management) and training and cultural baseline actions (training of indigenous researchers and maintenance/strengthening of the sociocultural practices of indigenous societies, school education, cultural and environmental proposals, and political projects).In the context of the RCA, CTI works in partnership with the Wyty Catë indigenous organisationvia the Timbira Program, which has the global development aim of strengthening Timbira sociocultural unity, configuring new political strategies in their relationship with national society, and preserving the cerrado, the traditional habitat of these peoples. It also works with the General Organisation of Mayuruna Peoples-OGM via the Javari Program, which has the global development aim of preserving both the environmental biodiversity and the cultural diversity of the Vale do Javari Indigenous Land, Amazonas state, for exclusive use by the indigenous peoples inhabiting the area, foregrounding these peoples as subjects of their history.
Contact:[email protected] – Phone: (05511)2935-7769
– CTI São Paulo/SEDE – Rua Euclides de Andrade, 91 Jardim Vera Cruz – CEP 05.030-030, São Paulo/SP
– CTI Brasília/DF – Phone: (05561) 3349-7769 SCLN 210 Bloco C Sala 217 Cep: 70.862-530, Brasília-DF
– Centro de Ensino e Pesquisa Pënxwyj Hempejxà – Maranhão
Correspondências: Caixa Postal nº 30 – BR 010 – km 18 – Próximo ao povoado do Canto Grande- CEP: 65980-000, Carolina/MA
– FrutaSã, Indústria, Comércio e Exportação SA.BR 010, nº 02 Maranhão – MA Bairro Sucupira – CEP: 65.980-000, Carolina-MA Phone/fax: (5599) 3531-2199 [email protected]
– CTI Amazonas – Phone: (05597) 3412-3991 Travessa da Ajuricaba, 05, Comunicações, Cep: 69640-000, Tabatinga/AM
The Federação das Organizações Indígenas do Rio Negro (Federation of Indigenous Organisations of the Rio Negro), a non-profitmaking civil association without party or religious affiliation, founded in 1987 and recognised as a state public utilitythat same year by Law 1831/1987, is an alliance for mutual cooperation and collaboration, which respects the cultural and religious diversity, is composed by fivecoordination teams that work withmore than 89 grassroots organisations, representatives of the indigenous communities distributed along the main affluents of the Rio Negro river basinin Amazonas state. There are around 750 villages where more than 35,000 indigenous people live, making up approximately 10% of the indigenous population in Brazil, belonging to 23 different ethnic groups, representatives of the Tukano, Aruak, Maku and Yanomami linguistic families, in an area of 11.6 million hectares of land that includes the municipalities of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Santa Isabel do Rio Negro and Barcelos.FOIRN’s headquarters, located in the municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, functions as an office, centre for logistical support and radio communication with more than 40 grassroots organisations, each of which represents a varying number of indigenous communities distributed along the main affluents of the Rio Negro basin.
Lines of action: FOIRN’s central objectives are: demarcation of indigenous lands in the Rio Negro region in the state of Amazonas; promotion of actions in the areas of health, education, differentiated education and indigenous youth, sustainable development and self-sustentation. Essential to this work is maintaining the autonomy of indigenous peoples, valorising their cultures, developing traditional medicine and developing other cultural activities designed to improve the living conditions of indigenous peoples in the Rio Negro basin.
Contact:[email protected] e [email protected] – Phone: (05597) 3471-1632 e 3471-1001
Federação das Organizações Indígenas do Rio Negro- Av. Álvaro Maia, Nº 79, Caixa Postal 42 – Centro CEP 69750-000 – São Gabriel da Cachoeira/AM – Skype: secretaria.foirn
Hutukara was created in 2004 in Watoriki village, Yanomami Indigenous Land. Based in Boa Vista/RR, it is composed of a General Assembly, a Directorate and a Council of Regional Representatives, andis supported by around 200 membersfrom 2008 onward. HAY’s activities and projects are discussed and decided at the General Assemblies and are supported by Brazilian and international non-governmental organisations, companies and federal government. Yanomami teachers also contribute, along with Yanomami health agents. Through the partnership with Instituto Socioambiental projects are undertaken in Intercultural Education and Territorial Management.
Lines of action: Plans for protecting land and combatting mining, radio communications, climate change, guaranteeing healthcare and quality education for their people through public policies, as well as defending the territory against the action of invaders, safeguarding environmental resources indispensable to the life of Yanomamo and Yek’uana peoples.
Contact:[email protected] – Phone: (05595) 3224-6767 e (05595) 3624-1468
Hutukara: Rua Capitão Bessa, 143. São Pedro – Boa Vista/RR CEP 69.306-620
Iepé (Instituto de Pesquisa e Formação Indígena: Indigenous Research and Training Institute), a non-profitmaking non-governmental organisation, founded in 2002 by specialists from diverse areas (anthropologists, biologists and educators) who work with indigenous communities in Amapá and the north of Pará (Waiãpi, Galibi Marworno, Karipuna, Palikur, Galibi do Oiapoque, Aparai, Katxuyana, Tiriyó, Wayana and Zo’é).Its central objective is to contribute to cultural and political strengthening and to the sustainable development of the indigenous communities involved, seeking to strengthen their forms of community and collective management, in order for the rights of these populations as distinct peoples to be respected. Its regional activities are focused both on the construction of alliances among indigenous peoples and populations who live in the area around the Indigenous Lands – Brazil nut harvesters, resettled rural workers and managers of Conservation Units – and on protecting and conserving the region’s forests. It works to promote respect for their rights as differentiated populations and to conserve forests and develops a crossborder coordination project that encompassesthe indigenous peoples of the Guiana Shield (Amapá, Norte do Pará, French Guiana and Suriname).
Lines of action: Iepé’s activities are undertaken in accordance with three main lines of work, whose goals are always interconnected: education and cultural valorisation, political strengthening, and territorial and environmental management within the ILs. It promotes a series of actions with indigenous communities and their representative organisations, such as training, capacity building, public policy monitoring and the local, regional, national and international articulation of indigenous peoples in relation to questions of collective interest. Programs: Waiãpi, Oiapoque, Tumucumaque and Regional Coordination.
Contact:[email protected] – Phone: (05511) 3746-7912 / 3569-4973 / 3569-4936
– Office of São Paulo: Rua Professor Monjardino, 19 – Vila Sônia – CEP 05625-160
– Office of Macapá/AP: Rua Leopoldo Machado, 640 CEP 68908-120 Phone: (05596) 3222-2400 / 3223-7633
– Office of Oiapoque/AP: Rua Lélio Silva 91 – Altos Oiapoque/AP CEP 68980-000 Phone: (05596) 8103-1111
– Office of Santarém/PA:Rua Silverio Sirotheau, 1235 – Santarém/PA CEP 68005-050
Founded in 1994 to propose integrated solutions to social and environmental problems, the primary objective of Instituto Socioambiental (ISA), a Brazilian civil society organisations, non-profitmaking, is to defend social, collective and common wealth and rights relating to the environment, cultural heritage, human rights and indigenous peoples’ rights.
Lines of action: ISA is structured into programs based on the following lines of action:defence of socioenvironmental rights, monitoring of public policies and proposal of alternatives, research, divulgation, documentation of socioenvironmental information, development of participatory models of socioenvironmental sustainability and institutional strengthening of local partners. It works in partnership with local indigenous organisations, reaching 49 indigenous peoples: Yanomami, Ye’kwana, Waiwa, peoples of the Raposa Serra do Sol IL, the 16 peoples of the Xingu and the Panará, as well as the peoples of the Rio Negro (Eastern Tukano, Maku and Arawak-speaking peoples of the upper and middle Rio Negro region, Amazonas).
Contact: Phone: (o5511) 3515-8900
– ISA São Paulo: Av. Higienópolis, 901 SL 30 São Paulo , SP 01238-001
– ISA Brasília: SCLN, 210 Bloco C sala 112 Brasília , DF 70862-530
– ISA Altamira: Rua dos Missionários, 2589, Esplanada do Xingu Altamira , PA 68372-030
– ISA Boa Vista: Rua Presidente Costa e Silva, 116 Boa Vista , RR 69306-670
– ISA Canarana: Av. São Paulo, 202 Canarana , MT 78640-000
– ISA Manaus: Rua Costa Azevedo, 272- 1° andar – Largo do Teatro – Centro Manaus , AM 69010-230
– ISA São Gabriel da Cachoeira: Rua Projetada, 70 Centro São Gabriel da Cachoeira , AM 69750-000
Created in 2009, OGM is the first organisation representing the Mayuruna people and has performed an important role in the binational articulation of this people against oil exploration of isolated indigenous peoples and in controlling and monitoringactivities on four stretches of riveron the Middle Rio Javari, Curuça, Pardo and Jaquirana that could affect the ancestral Matses territory on both sides of the Brazil/Peru border. Since its foundation it has worked in conjunction with Brazilian and Peruvian governmental and non-governmental organisations and, especially, with the Comunidad Nativa Matsés, and organisation of the Mayuruna/Matsés who live on the Peruvian side of the border.
Lines of action: Defence of the rights of the Matsés people on the Brazil/Peru border; Territorial and environmental management; Valorisation of traditional knowledge and its transmission.
Contact: [email protected] – Phone: (05597) 991724795
CTI Tabatinga/AM -Travessa da Ajuricaba, n° 05 Bairro Comunicações Cep: 69640-000 Tabatinga-AM Phone: (05597) 3412-3991 Amazonas – AM
The Organização dos Professores Indígenas no Acre (Acre Indigenous Teachers Organisation) was created in 2000 with the main objective of representing and defending educational policy at local, national and international level, the ideas of differentiated indigenous education in their permanent relation with the defence of territories and environmental management, based on the valorisation of the traditional culture of the indigenous peoples of Acre (Kaxinawá, Ashaninka, Manchineri, Katukina, Arara, Shanenawa, Yawanawá, Jaminawa, Apolima Aarara and Kontawanawa).
Lines of action: The organisation’s objectives includethe preservation, documentation and dissemination of traditional forms of education developed in the villages, as well as the forms of cultural manifestation, knowledge and histories particular to each indigenous people. These aims in mind, in partnership with other local entities, OPIAC runs seminars in indigenous lands that look to debate themes such as public education policy, cultural valorisation, linguistics policy, environmental policy and so on, with the participation of teachers, leaders, indigenous agroforestry agents, women and other indigenous teachers that are not yet members.
Contact:[email protected] – Phone: (05568) 3223- 3177
CENTRO DE FORMAÇÃO DOS POVOS DA FLORESTA – Adress: Estrada Transacreana KM 7
Caixa Postal n. 61 – CEP: 69900-000 – Rio Branco – Acre – Brasil
The Associação Wyty-Catë das Comunidades Timbira do Maranhão e Tocantins (Wyty-Catë Association of Timbira Communities of Maranhão and Tocantins) unites the Krahô, Gavião-Pykopjê, Krikati, Apinajé, Canela-Apãnjêkra and Canela-Ramkokamekra peoples, speakers of a language from the Ge family and traditional occupants of a large extent of lands situated in the cerrados of the north of Tocantins and south of Maranhão. The Wyty Catë Association represents the Timbira peoples in relation to national level institutions, seeking to influence policies in health, education, environmental conservation and other areas, in order to guarantee differentiated sociocultural practices and the integrity of their territories.
Lines of action: The political trajectory of the Wyty-CatëAssociation includes important actions in the area of education, organising capacity-building courses for indigenous teachers, forming the Comissão de Professores Timbira (CPT: Timbira Teachers Commission) and implemented its differentiated school, the Timbira School. In the health area, it has discusses and coordinated the creation of the DSEI Timbirawith indigenous health organisations. And in the search for another model of regional development, it is the owner, in partnership with the Centro de Trabalho Indigenista, of Agroindústria FrutaSã Comércio e Exportação Ltda, which processes and markets cerrado fruit pulp supplied by agroextractivists form the area around the ILs. It has also accompanied the environmental licensing process and succeeded in guaranteeing important compensation and mitigation measures for the installation of the Estreito Hydroelectric Plant/MA, which will affect various indigenous lands. As a condition for installation of the project, the Timbira demands land legalization of the Kraolândia, Apinajé and Governador ILs, whose claimsprimarily concern the review of indigenous lands identified in the past.
Contact:[email protected] – Phone: (05599) 98217-1514
ASSOCIAÇÃO WYTY CATI DAS COMUNIDADES TIMBIRA DO MARANHÃO E TOCANTINS
Rua Gomes de Sousa, 344 – Centro – Carolina /MA – CEP: 65980-000
Indigenous peoples directly or indirectly involved in the RCA’s actions through the activities of 13 indigenous and indigenist member organisations:
FOIRN E ISA: Arapaso, Baniwa, Bará, Baré, Barasana, Coripaco, Desana, Dow, Hupda, Karapanã, Kubeo, Kotiria, Makuna, Mirity-tapuya, Nadöb, Pira-tapuya, Siriano,Tariana, Tukano, Tuyuca, Yuhupde, Warekena e Yanomami.
The RCA is structured into three bodies, each with itsrole defined and agreed among the member organisations and ratified in its statutes. The Network General Assembly is its highest decision-making body, composed of participants from all thenetwork’s member institutions, and sets the agenda and priorities of its annual work plan, as well as discussing strategic questions and issues of interest to the member organisations.
The Political Council (PC) is the RCA’s political-strategic body, locatedin between the Assembly and the Executive Secretariat. Currently it is made up of three organisations, two of them indigenous (Opiac and Hutukara) and one indigenist (ISA). It has a two-year mandate and is tasked with ensuring implementation of the Assembly’s decisions, proposing political and strategic guidelines and work agendas designed to enhance and fulfil the RCA’s mission.
Finally, the network has an Executive Secretariat responsible for managing the network, a task assigned to one of the member organisations, currently under the administration of Iepé. Its duties include: implementing actions indicated by the annual plan agreed at the General Assembly, ensuring the participation of all member organisations in the RCA’s activities, coordinating and formulating relevant projects, and seeking out funding for them, carrying out the RCA’s financial and executive management in agreement with the Political Council and mindingits equipment and document archive.
Since its creation, the Amazonia Cooperation Network has received funding from the Rainforest Foundation Norway (RFN). Over recent years the RCA has also obtained support from other institutions, including the Museu do Índio, FUNAI, the Netherlands Embassy, the Norwegian Embassy and USAID.
RCA lines of action
RCA’s lines of action were defined by the member organisations for the realization of collective activities related to intercultural exchanges, thematic seminars, regional encounters, stafftraining and capacity-building for indigenous leaders, production and disseminating of documents and publications, monitoring of indigenist and environmentalist public policies with an emphasis on indigenous protagonism.
The defence of the constitutional rights of indigenous peoples in Brazil and of living well in indigenous territories mobilize the coordinated workof the 13 organisations that make up the RCA. Over recent years, the activities of the RCA have focused around three main themes: Territorial and Environmental Management of Indigenous Lands, Prior Consultation and Self-Defined Consultation Protocols, and Climate Change. RCA’s main action strategies are fosterthe exchange of information and production of new knowledge, influencing public policies, promoting training spaces and processes, and work in close cooperationwith other organisations from the indigenist field in Brazil.
The right of indigenous peoples to be consulted by the state when a legislative or administrative measure may affect their rights, ways of life and territories has formallyexistedin Brazil since the country ratified Convention 169 of the International Labour Organisation. The organisations that make up the RCA launched the proposal to developSelf-Defined Protocols for Consultation and Consent, elaborated by the indigenous peoples and communities autonomously and independently, in a preparation process for exercising the right to be adequately consulted by the Brazilian state.
Elaborate their own consultation protocols entails that each indigenous people or each traditional and quilombola community thinks about how they should be consulted by the government, taking into consideration their traditional forms of decision making, modes of constructing internal agreements, forms of organising themselves politically and representing themselves vis-à-vis national society and the state. In being formalized, the protocols comprisean explicit and public definition of the rules of representation, organisation and follow-up of decision-making processes of each people, making evident the ways considered adequate for dialoguing with the state.
Click here to access the publication “Direito à Consulta e Consentimento de povos indígenas, quilombolas e comunidades tradicionais” (“Right to Consultation and Consent of indigenous peoples, quilombolas and traditional communities”).
Click hear to acess the report card “Proposta de Diretrizes para a Regulamentação do Procedimentos de Consulta livre, Prévia e Informada aos Povos Indígenas no Brasil“ (“Proposal of Guidelines for the Regulation of Procedures for Free, Prior and Informed Consultation of Indigenous Peoples in Brazil”).
Click hear to assist audiovisuals “A obrigação do Estado de Consultar os Povos Indígenas” (“The obligation of the State to consult Indigenous Peoples”).
The Wajãpi of Amapá were the first indigenous people in Brazil to elaborate their own consultation protocol: Wajãpi kõ oõsãtamy wayvu oposikoa romõ ma´ë –Wajãpi Consultation and Consent Protocol, which was published in 2014. TheRCA has worked to disseminate the right to consultation of indigenous peoples and the state’s obligation to consult them, and has supported processes for developing self-defined consultation protocols among different indigenous peoples.
Click here to access the publication “Wajãpi kõ oõsãtamy wayvu oposikoa romõ ma´ë – Protocolo de Colsulta e Consentimento Wajãpi” (“Wajãpi Consultation and Consent Protocol”).
The formulation of Indigenous Consultation and Consent Protocols was presented by RCA representatives to the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Victoria Tauli-Corpuz, as a way for indigenous peoples to advance in respect for their rights and to compel Brazilian State to comply international commitments made on a voluntary basis, both with the UN and the ILO – International Labor Organization. During the mission of the rapporteur in Brazil, in March 2016, which objective was to verify the situation of indigenous peoples and collect information for a report presented to the UN, this group of RCA representatives delivered the document “Obstacles and resistance to the process of implementing the right to free, prior and informed consent in Brazil”, a complaint regarding noncompliance with the duty to consult and the consequent violation of the right of autonomy of indigenous peoples in Brazil, highlighting the limitations in understanding this right by the three spheres of power in the country.
Click here to access the document “Obstacles and resistance to the process of implementing the right to free, prior and informed consent in Brazil“.
In the second quarter of 2017, Brazil will bereviewed for the third time by the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) of the United Nations Human Rights Council, set up in 2006 to analyse the human rights situation in all 193 UN member countries. The RCA is working to ensure that the human rights of indigenous peoples are duly considered in this process.
In 2006, the Human Rights Council of the United Nations (UN) set up the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) mechanism to assess the human rights situation in the 193 UN member countries in an egalitarian form.Since then all the countries have periodically been through this evaluation, checking whether obligations and commitments in the human rights are have been met by the countries involved.
A state’s evaluation is based on three documents: the national report produced by the state that is being assessed; a compilation of information from the United Nations on the state prepared by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), and a summary of the information presented by other stakeholders (including civil society organisations) also produced by the OHCHR. Based on these documents, the representatives of the UN member countries make recommendations to the evaluated country for improving the human rights situation.
Brazil has already passed through two evaluation cycles of the Universal Periodic Review:in 2008 and 2012. In 2017 the country will be reviewed once again apropos its human rights situation. The RCA, in conjunction with the Articulação dos Povos Indígenas do Brasil (APIB) and Plataforma Dhesca de Direitos Humanos, is working to ensure that the human rights situation of indigenous peoples to be duly considered in this review.
In September 2016, the RCA, APIB and Dhescaorganised a workshop to evaluate the human rights situation of indigenous peoples and prepare a wide-ranging report for submission to the UN, as well as supporting the elaboration of thematic reports and reports on specific cases. These reports will be compiled by the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and will be included in Brazil’s evaluation process.
Access here the reports on the indigenous issue sent to the UN:
Report “The human rights situation of indigenous peoples in Brazil”, presented by the coalition led by the RCA, APIB and Dhesca and more than 26 indigenous, indigenist, socioenvironmentalist and human rights organisations.
Access others reports on the indigenous issue sent to the UN:
“UPR Brazil Right to Indigenous School Education“
“The Permanent Invasion of the Yanomami Territory in the Brazilian Amazon and Genocide“
“La situación de los derechos humanos de los pueblos indígenas en la frontera Acre-Perú“
Territorial and environmental management
The indigenous and indigenist organisations of the RCA are engaged in building local processes focusing on the territorial, environmental, economic and cultural sustainabilityof indigenous lands. The RCA has been organising exchanges, thematic seminars, the production and dissemination of publications, with the aim of swapping initiatives from different indigenous lands in Amazonia relating to the territorial and environmental management of indigenous lands. The elaboration of Life Plans, Management Plans, natural resource management initiatives, strategies for protecting and monitoring territories, production initiatives, as well as experiences with training indigenous environmental agents, have marked the cooperation activitiesdeveloped in the context of the RCA.
With the signing of the National Policy for the Territorial and Environmental Management of Indigenous Lands (PNGATI), in July 2012,these modalities of articulation were supplemented by the search to influence, monitor and collaborate in the process of implementing this new policy, both at national level and on local and regional level.
The PNGATI Training course, run by the RCA in partnership with the Gati/FUNAI Project, MMA and IIEB certified 24 indigenous representatives of the RCA, belonging to 20 ethnic groups from distinct regions of Brazilian Amazonia. Focused specifically on indigenous leaders and with a proposal that sharesthe premise of greater protagonism and autonomy in the implementation of PNGATI, this training looked to capacitate local multiplier agents capable of promoting the mediation of this new policy and its discussion in community contexts. Between 2014 and 2015 a total of 200 hours/class were completed, distributed over the four on-site modules (held in Brasilia and at the Acre Training Centre of the Peoples of the Forest), as well as activities includedamongthe planned modules to facilitate and promote the dissemination of PNGATI in the communities, along with surveying and articulating the local realities in line with the approaches definedin this policy.
Click hear to access the publication “Gestão Territorial e Ambiental em Terras Indígenas” (“Territorial and Environmental Management in Indigenous Lands”).
Today there is widespread recognition of the role performed by indigenous peoples, their ways of life and their relation with maintaining the forest and the use of natural resources existing in them in confronting climate change. A consensus exists on the importance of indigenous territories in the preservation of the forest and the biodiversity that they contain. While rates of deforestation are increasing throughout Amazonia, indigenous lands continue to register very low levels of deforestation, the result of the traditional modes of occupation and the management of natural resources in which these peoples engage. It is also a consensus that indigenous peoples are among the groups and populations most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.
The growing perception of the environmental impacts caused by climate change has been a topic of real concern among the indigenous communities of Amazonia. The continuous deforestation, contamination of headwaters, rivers and soils, the installation of large-scale infrastructural projects and the forest fires, among other factors that compromisethe maintenance of biodiversity, have had a drastic impact on the ways of living, knowing and surviving of indigenous peoples.
Recognizing that these perceptible impacts on the forest imply a more global context and are the result of actions undertaken beyond the peoples who inhabit them prompts the need to promote debates that involve distinct actors and viewpoints, where the indigenous communities are incorporated as spokespersons and protectors of the forests.
In this context indigenous peoples have had a limited participation in the national and international debates on climate change and the actions needed to confront it. The RCA has accompanied the discussions on the challenges and perspectives involved in climate change, as we well as the commitments made by the Brazilian government in the context of global climate agreements. Training indigenous leaders for qualified participation in the debates on climate change and support initiatives that promote adaptations to the transformation that indigenous peoples have already experienced in their territories are key lines of actionof the RCA on this theme.
The organisation of intercultural exchanges among representatives of different indigenous peoples is a trainingmodality increasingly used by various indigenous and indigenist organisations throughout Amazonia. Among them, the RCA, which in the last 10 years has organisedmore than a hundred exchanges, conceived as tripsin which a group of individuals travels from their region to meet and learn about other peoples, projects, initiatives and regional contexts.
Exchange as a model of swapping information among peoples from distinct oral and cultural traditions has proven to be a rich form of fostering contact and learning with different experiences on themes and issues that are common to the indigenous peoples of Amazonia, in the construction of processes of territorial, environmental, economic and cultural sustainability. They have created opportunities for discussing themes of common interest, exchanging experiences and methodologies, discussing results and difficulties, and producing documents to intervene in public policies relating to indigenous peoples and the conservation of Amazonia.
The exchanges promoted by the RCA has mobilized dozens of indigenous people and advisors,both men and women, who had the opportunity to leave their lands and communities, and learn about other sociocultural, environmental and political realities. More widely, the exchange of information and the systemization of knowledges and practices among the indigenous and indigenist organisations boostthe local, regional and national work of these actors and their capacity for dialogue in meetings, forums and committees, in the defence of their interests and viewpoints.
Acess hear the article on RCA intercultural exchanges.
REDE DE COOPERAÇÃO AMAZÔNICA – RCA
Contact: [email protected]
Address: Rua Professor Monjardino, 19 – São Paulo/SP – CEP 05625-160
Phones: (05511) 3746-7912 – (05511) 98599-0020
Executive Secretary RCA: Luís Donisete Benzi Grupioni/Iepé [email protected]
Advisor to the RCA Executive Secretariat: Patricia de Almeida Zuppi [email protected]
Political Council RCA:
Francisca Arara/OPIAC, Maurício Yekuana/Hutukara e Camila Barra/ISA